Conveyor systems are commonplace in many industries as they provide a cost-effective and material-loss-reducing means of handling bulk materials. Many forms of conveying systems exist, to be used in accordance with the needs of the particular industry. A pneumatic handling system can be used for particles ranging from small size granules to pellets, practical for use in industrial areas of building and technology.
System structure and functionality
Pneumatic conveying systems transfer the bulk materials via a pipeline. Common components of the system are a material introduction point, piping, a receiving point, and an air flow movement device, but the specific nature and capacity of a system varies from model to model.
The flexibility of pneumatic conveying system pipelines allows them to be fitted in existing spaces, as they can be routed around equipment. Well-designed pneumatic conveyor systems are a practical, economic means of transporting materials from point A to point B that prove more effective than alternative mechanical systems.
The pneumatic system is an industrial conveyor system which can run vertically or horizontally along long distances and offers protection against dust emissions to the atmosphere. Maintenance, equipment and operation costs are reduced compared to mechanical conveyor systems.
Pneumatic conveying methods
Air streams – either pressure or vacuum – are used to move the materials, and there are three main categories of pneumatic conveying methods which function in relation with and in accordance to the particular velocities, pressures and air to product ratios within the system: dilute phase, dense phase and air conveying.
Dilute phase conveying is a continuous, high-velocity, low pressure and high air to product loading ratio process. The process is facilitated by the pushing or pulling of air-suspended materials through an airstream velocity. The system can be designed as a positive pressure system, vacuum system (negative pressure system) or a combination of both.
By being enclosed, pneumatic conveyors can operate without conveyed material encountering moving parts. Pneumatic vacuum systems administer a vacuum at the receiving end in order to pull the material through the enclosed piping, whereas pressure systems inject compressed air at the introduction or system inlet in order to push materials through.